The ambition of this project is to find out if the media is an agent for democratization using newspaper and other news materials as a case study.
The researcher in the course of this research used the survey method which requires the assigning of coding sheet (questionnaire) to each different newspaper publish daily from January to September 2006.
Data has been collected using coding sheet and personal observations presented and analyzed in percentages. From the analysis it was found that the media is an agent for democratization.
Therefore in other to improve the democratic state of Nigeria the researcher made recommendations to facilitate the media.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
INTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Significant of the study
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Research hypothesis
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Limitation of the study
CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Sources of literature review
2.3 What has the media done about review
2.4 Summary of literature review
2.5 Theoretical framework
CHAPTER THREE3.0 Methodology
3.1 Population of study
3.2 Sample size
3.3 Sampling techniques
3.4 Instrument for data collected
3.5 Method of analyzing data
3.6 Measuring to ensure validity
CHAPTER FOUR4.0 data analysis and presentation
4.1 findings and discussion
CHAPTER FIVE5.0 Summary
5.1 Recommendation for further study
The media as an agent for Democratization is so vital just as air is important to the men. As the fourth estate of the realm in the society, the media acts as the watchdog, the of the society.
It is believed that after the executive the legislature and the judiciary then come the media. According to their respective functions, while the executive runs the day to day affairs of the state, the legislature make laws the judiciary interprets s well as adjudicates in disputes, then the media on other hand watch over the activities of these three organs and report to the general public.
However, just as dogs are kept to guard against an intruder or invader, same way the media are there to watch over the activates of the government in relation to the needs of the citizens and society in general and if at any time the need or right of the people are violated the media bark so as to protect these interest. This is why the media are seen as the crusader for social justice, public morality, civil liberties and human progress.
According to Wiliam Ruler (1978: page 109)
The media serve as the bulwark
Of the citizen against tyranny of
The majority the intoxication of
power the grinding operation of
authority and the mindless
expectation of the underprivileged
by privileged specifically the mass
media particularly. The print media
have a clear and unshirnkable
duty of criticize and appraise the occurrences
of the monument
Watchdog does not only reflect public opinion but guides and leads it. Surely, the media is an agent for democratization. Not only does it help ushering in democracy, they play a crucial role in nurturing and sustaining it.
In addition, the role of the media in democratic setting cannot be over emphasize, it provides the much needed communication bridges that faster society together and ensure an enduring democracy by averting those seeds of discord as suspicion, distrust and confusion, through its function of gathering and disseminating information. In doing this. It’s surveillance on the environment.
More so, it provides a forum through which the governed could then react to government polices it provides such analysis as would enable the people to secure and adequate understanding and background to events. Also it assists in the articulation and pursuit of the national interest .it helps strengthen the economic, social and political fabric of the nation and provides informed criticism and viable alternative to public polices. It monitors the performance of government with a view to preventing deviation from provides medium for transmitting knowledge and educating the populace.
The media as a powerful agent of modernization. It provides news on every event and “news” is the window on the world. Besides, media are represented by a set of people who but venture of their calling and training are believed to be imbued with specialized skills for the special role of communicating intelligibly not only with one another but also most times. Communication to many others. To carry out the traditional institutional functions of surveillance interpretation and cultural transmission, the mass media the print and electronic media use different languages as a means of reaching their vast audience. An instant is a new programme that is being organized by Enugu Broacasting services, otherwise know as “Medialink” of “Kaoha malu” being handled by Chukuwma Ogbonna, where people are given the privilege to contributes or air their views or to even criticize the activities of he government. A scholar and an educationists in the person of Abraham Linco described democracy as the government of the people by the people and for the people. it is the only form of government that is founded on the dignity of man.
In addition, the role of the media especially in democratic set-up is not just to report, but also to explain and interpreter events. The people want to know what are happening to them and their world. In other words they are aware that many things are happening and need a correct picture of the situation. They want to expand their horizontal they are worried about the complexity and in securities in our contemporary world. As a watchdog. The media primary responsibility is to the people. The media could also be used as a vehicle of thought and means of brining the ethic groups or tribes closer to one another.
The Nigerian mass media must have courage hind sights foresights fairness and sense of duty to the community. They must be sensitive to the environment. Ensure the confidence of the truth and the having respect fort eh truth and the people. However, assert here that the success or failure of our practice of democratic government will to a large extend, depend on how well the media comes out its functions as the midoife of democracy.
Suffices it to restate that far enduring democracy to thrive in Nigeria or any nation there must be a vibrant and competent media that has the capacity to check the excesses of over clippery opportunistic politicians.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media is one of the most important and pervasive institutions in modern society. Their content touches every aspect four lives at the personal family and societal levels. Media is older than the nation and through thick and than has defined understanding what shall be called the print and electronic media that spread and receive information.The media could further be defined as all technological medicated institutionally organized and spontaneously expressed form of social communication in the rural and urban area include such firms as radio, television, magazines, newspapers, drums.
Usually all these channels of communication have similar and equal functions to perform. They educate inform, entertain, mould opinion, societalize and through these satisfy the hopes and aspiration of the masses. The media, in its informative role gives conventional, scientific and sophisticated or investigative information about issues. Also in it’s educative role they enlighten the masses on certain issues which affect them thereby freeing them from the dangers of half-truth and isolated facts in the name of reporting.
The media have been found to be a useful tool in the political socialization, development, and mobilization in the society and the governments cannot exist without the media. All the political functions of nay political socialization interest aggregation, rule making application adjudication are al performed through the framework of the media. Despite its shortcoming the press has been contributing immensely toteh development of the country. It has contributed substantially to upholding accountability and monitoring the process of government.
Most of the diagnosis for Nigeria’s failure to actualize potentials, do not reckon with communication. It can be argued that most of the factors of failure are traceable to communication defects. It is only when systematic communication is in place that government can be efficient. One of the preconditions of efficiency is responsiveness and how done determine responsiveness if there be feedback in the absence f\of a well-designed comprehensive communication support system?
Essentially, government ought to predicate most of their polices on feedback from the people, which should serve as input to the process of policy formulating and implementation. All these are absolutely essential for the achievement of people centered sustainable democracy. In other words it is only when people feel part of the development process that their best could be made to bear positively on it.
At different times in this country the media have passed through harrowing experiences including the Monstous and British Decree 4 of the Buharis/ Idiagbon era, and the spate of closures which hit media houses under the Obasanjo, Babangida and Abacha regimes. but in all these perhaps due largely to the centrality of their role to the well being of society, they have survived the insensitive measures.
The media is all its ramification is used as far as the environment of democratic principles and values on citizens is concerned. In the Western nation far instance, the mass media is used as the megaphone of the masses. A hypothetical of the example of he mass media ability to carry out it’s responsibility was displayed by GARY HART, a front line runner of the democratic presidential nomination in the united state of America. The media simply exposed his social failure (1984).
The media primary political duty is to see the purification of political process and expose social and economic scandals of he society, politicians in particular. Nigeria it is quite unfortunate that the government have not bothered to secure the participation of their people or carry them along in h professed and much trumpeted commitment to social development. This explains Nigeria failure in fulfilling the promise of life more abundantly in the last 40 years. Governance must be communication driven, considering the dimensions and multitudes of the development challengers facing us today, effective communication can be describe as an indispensable panacea.
Communication is indeed the vital link between democracy and development that are often described as two sides of the same coin in special terms, social and well structure communication system can help prevent and reduce several health problems, assist farmers who make up to percent of our active labour force to improve their practices and ultimate their products which are crucial to meting nutritional needs which in adequacy account for significant health problems and also essential for the realization of our drive towards achieving food security. The same goes for the stipulation and running of economic activities in rural areas and informal sectors particularly in spheres where we have comparative advantages. The private sectors have contributed significantly to the development of he print media in Nigeria. Government still have a lot move to do in the broad casting industry. At this juncture, there is no doubt that the media is portent and essential organ for democracy. No country can do without it. All that is needed for its effective and efficient operation is right atmosphere devoid of undue harassment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Democracy in other to survive in Nigeria, the media has to be employed nurturing sustaining and being at the forefront of democratic development. The masses want to know what is happening and need a current picture of the situation they want to expand the horizon.
The masses are worried about the complexity and insectaries in our contemporary world. Some of our leaders do not keep to the objective of their work. Also there is this problem of tribalism and ethnicity in the country. There is need for governed to react sometimes to government polices and activities.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of theist study is to show the special place of the media in Nigeria democratic dispensation and its contributing role in disseminating information to the grassroots levels.
However, it is also the sole objective f this research to let people know that no society can live in peace, unity and with an abiding faith in its progress without positive and affirmative information about themselves, their leaders or rulers and indeed what goes on beyond their leaders and their immediate surroundings therefore, all emphasis would be placed on the media as an agent for democratization.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research will be important to all students of mass communication, political science and indeed all well meaning Nigerian’s. It will also be of academic importance to these sets of people, as it will increase their knowledge one way or the other.
Again this work will be of importance to pleasure readers and researchers who will find it as a portent material for stock in their libraries. It can also be used as a yard stick for measuring expert and the past. Democracy is of relative importance to the individuals, society and so many ways to sustain it is highly appreciable. This research still will go at length to imbibe and cultivate in peoples mind the ideas and tenets of democracy, the pros and coins, which if adhered strictly will lead to the success of our democratic experiment
Therefore this study will in every fold contribute so much in instilling among our leaders and hence help then to perceive the media as a partner in progress rather then their enemy in the match towards democracy.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
By definition a hypothesis is a proposition an intelligent guess about the solution to a problem which has no validity until full investigation is carried out.
A hypothesis mayor may not be supported by research findings. The major importance of hypothesis ensure that the researcher does not engage in a wild search for he solutions to the research problem.
Hypothesis can be stated in two ways: Null form and directional alternation form.
- Null hypothesis suggests no relationship between two or more variables or no difference in the effects of one or more in dependent(s) on the dependent variable.
- Alternative hypothesis is a directional hypothesis which specifies the condition that will hold if the null hypothesis does not hold.
Hoi: The report on the role of media in strengthening democracy is not effectively carried out in newspaper, magazines and other newsprints
Ha2: The media enhances peace, unity and progress in Nigeria due to the nature of their work.
Ho2: The media does not enhances peace, unity and progress in Nigeria due to the nature of their work.
Ha3: The media through their active support on democracy has contributed immensely to Nigeria development.
Ho3: The media through their active support on democracy has not contributed immensely to Nigeria development.
1.6 CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Transmission – This is defined as pas o, hand on, or communication transfer.
Politician – On skilled or interested and engaged in politics as a profession
Journalist- Person employed in writing for a newspaper or magazines for the interest of the mass (audience)
Democracy- This is the government of all the people, usually elected by the people for he purpose of fishing out a capable person who will effectively represent them.
Postulate – this is people’s assumption of a thing to be true especially as a basis for reasoning.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
As a result of time factors and financial constraints, it was not possible for me to go in to the filed to look for data.
Therefore, this research is library study and will rely only on the materials go thing from the library as well government documents.
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